Waltz asserts that nuclear deterrence will reduce the probability of nuclear war provided three conditions are met: Paradoxically, however, excessive centralism only served to enhance centrifugal tendencies in Kashmir and, ultimately, in other states as well. The belief that war was imminent was strengthened when an American satellite observed the evacuation of Pakistani workers from Kahuta. essay writing website diwali festival In addition, the widespread belief among Kashmiris that the state's coercive apparatus is used more frequently on its own citizens than external enemies, ought to persuade policy-makers to change their financial priorities.
The fact that both nations were teeter-tottering on the brink of disaster in May seriously undermines the argument that nuclear weapons proliferation in the sub-continent will lead to stability. By suggesting that ethnic boundaries are variable, Brass is not implying that they can be manipulated in any which way. compare and contrast essay examples cats vs dogs Throughout the s the country was plagued by the assertion of sub-national loyalties.
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Accordingly, the customs and traditions of many Indian Muslims are similar to those of Hindus. To facilitate a clear understanding of India's non-discriminatory model of secularism, I shall compare it to Europe's non-interventionist modeL From a European perspective, secularism, the doctrine which separates the religious realm from the temporal realm, arose in response to the confrontation between two institutions, the Church and the State, which desired a monopoly of power. Muni, Paul Brass and Urmila Phadnis. In fact, India might interpret the demonstration shot as an actual nuclear shot that missed, and react by firing her own nuclear weapons.
In this section I will primarily be concerned with answering the following questions: It was in this atmosphere of political and economic decay that New Delhi appointed Jagmohan, the BJP's favorite candidate, as governor of Kashmir on January 19, In order to ensure that the legislative competence of the states is respected, the government ought to consult with the executives of the states before determining whether one or more of the contingencies exist. The CIA discovered that Pakistan was capable of manufacturing weapons-grade enriched uranium metal at a facility near Islamabad—but not at Kahuta.
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Unfortunately, it was Nehru's death in the same year that precluded settlement on those terms. Although it has an explicit pro-Pak stance it does not rely on religion to send its message. writing a dissertation proposal knowledge management The representatives of the National Conference therefore flew to Delhi to seek help from the Government of India, but the absence of any constitutional ties between our State and India made it impossible for her to 3 R. In response to Pakistan's sabre-rattling, Prime Minister Singh sought increased defense outlays from parliament During his pitch for more grants he stated:
Home About Services Blog Contact. Meanwhile, various divisions of the Indian army were relocated to cover the border areas of Punjab, Jammu, Pathankot and Kashmir. website for essay writing my friends South Asian Publishers, Vol.
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By doing so, we will be able to understand what motivated New Delhi's Kashmir policy. With Sheikh Abdullah, the Congress did not succeed; with his son Farooq Abdullah it did, to the extent of turning him into a Congress stooge. Throughout the s the country was plagued by the assertion of sub-national loyalties. Citing the UN Charter and international legal practise, India insists that the right to self-determination does not apply to the territorial components of a nation-state wishing to secede from the state. For Jinnah, the partition of India was based on the idea that Muslims on the sub-continent constituted a separate nation.
Since Farooq had won the election on a nationalistic platform, Indira believed a dismissal of his government and the imposition of a government more amenable to Congress manipulation would thwart the separatist agenda. The international community would probably not tolerate further Balkanization of the sub-continent Such an outcome would have destabilizing effects because the micro-states which emerge may possess the nuclear technology that the former nation-states developed. A devolution of power to the states is also required regarding the procedures for constitutional amendment Currently, the constitution can be amended by the unilateral action of the Union parliament.